In first millennium B.C. Korčula island was inhabited by Illyrians, and in period of intensive colonization of Dalmatia in 5. and 6. century B.C. according to legend Greeks founded city(Antenor), on peaky hill from three sides surrounded by sea, suitable for surveillance of passage through Pelješac channel. The most oldest written monument on Croatian territory was found in Lumbarda, called Lumbarajska Psefizma (Psefysm) which is about regulations of living and relations one of colonies in Korčula. Greeks gave name to the island Corcyra Melaina, because of extremely rich and dark woods. In first decades A.C. the island was conquered by Romans who expand their influence and culture until the fall of Roman empire, when Corcyra Nigra is under the influence of Bizant. In early middle age Slavic tribe of Neretvans inhabit islands of Dalmatia and also the island of Korčula. In 1000. Petar II Orseolo conquer the island and Venice with small interruptions by Zahumlje, Dubrovnik-republic and Croatian-Hungary administration, rule the island.

In period between 1420.-1797. Venice rule sovereign. After the fall of Venice, different governments rule the island: Austria, Russia, France, England and after congress in Wien 1815., again Austria. After that same period of history follows for whole Dalmatia.
The city of Korčula as the center of the administrative and ecclesiastical authorities of the island, coordinate its development according to government that ruled. Progress of development was contributed by convenient location of the city itself, on borderline of Venice republic in front of crucial naval passage on east Adriatic. On another side, economic power of the city grows, specially after founding Bishopric in 1300., and bloom of architecture and crafts in 15. and 16. century when the city takes form that is mainly kept until today.